Content » Vol 47, Issue 3

Original report

Finnish version of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia: Reference values in the Finnish general population and associations with leisure-time physical activity

Petteri Koho, Katja Borodulin, Hannu Kautiainen, Urho Kujala, Timo Pohjolainen, Heikki Hurri
ORTON Rehabilitation Centre, ORTON Foundation, Tenholiante 10, FI-00280 Helsinki, Finland. E-mail:
DOI: 10.2340/16501977-1927


Objectives: To create reference values for the general Finnish population using the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK-FIN), to study gender differences in the TSK-FIN, to assess the internal consistency of the TSK-FIN, to estimate the prevalence of high levels of kinesiophobia in Finnish men and women, and to examine the association between kinesiophobia and leisure-time physical activity and the impact of co-morbidities on kinesiophobia.
Methods: The study population comprised 455 men and 579 women. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire about their socio-demographic factors, leisure-time physical activity, co-morbidities and kinesiophobia.
Results: The mean TSK-FIN score was significantly higher for men (mean 34. 2, standard deviation (SD) 6. 9) compared with women (mean 32. 9, SD 6. 5), with an age-adjusted p = 0. 004 for the difference between men and women. Cronbach’s alpha was 0. 72, indicating substantial internal consistency. Men over 55 years of age and women over 65 years of age had a higher (p < 0. 001) TSK score compared with younger people. There was a significant (p < 0. 001) inverse association between kinesiophobia and leisure-time physical activity among both sexes. The presence of cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disease or a mental disorder was associated with a higher TSK-FIN score compared with the absence of the aforementioned disorders.
Conclusion: We present here the reference values for the TSK-FIN. The reference values and prevalence among the general population may help clinicians to define the level of kinesiophobia among patients. Disorders other than musculoskeletal diseases were associated with kinesiophobia, which should be noted in daily practice.

Lay Abstract


Do you want to comment on this paper? The comments will show up here and if appropriate the comments will also separately be forwarded to the authors. You need to login/create an account to comment on articles. Click here to login/create an account.