Content » Vol 45, Issue 8

Original report

Impact of personal and environmental factors on employment outcome two years after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury

Marit V. Forslund, Cecilie Roe, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla, Solrun Sigurdardottir, Nada Andelic
Olav M. Troviks vei 28 (H505), NO-0864 Oslo, Norway. E-mail:
DOI: 10.2340/16501977-1168


Objectives: To describe employment outcomes and assess the impact of personal and environmental factors on employment outcomes 2 years after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury.
Design/subjects: A prospective cohort of 100 patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury, aged 16–55 years, hospitalized in a Trauma Referral Centre during the period 2005–2007 and followed up at 1 and 2 years post-injury.
Methods: Variables of interest were divided into personal and environmental factors. Personal factors include socio-demographics (age, gender, education, work demands, marital status and child-care). Environmental factors included social (support by friends), institutional (number of rehabilitation services, need for well-coordinated healthcare services), and physical (access to own transportation) factors. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted with employment (working part-/full-time or studying) at 2-year follow-up as the dependent variable, and including independent variables based on significance from a univariate analysis, adjusting for injury severity.
Results: At the 2-year follow-up, 44% of patients were employed. Patients with less severe injuries (odds ratio (OR) = 1. 2, p = 0. 03), those supported by friends (OR = 3. 5, p = 0. 07), those not in need of well-coordinated health services (OR = 4. 1, p = 0. 04), and patients driving a vehicle at the 1-year follow-up (OR = 8. 4, p < 0. 001) were more likely to be employed at the 2-year follow-up.
Conclusion: Rehabilitation professionals should be aware of the role of environmental factors when planning vocational rehabilitation services after traumatic brain injury.

Lay Abstract


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