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Prediction of depressive symptoms up to three years post-stroke
OBJECTIVE: To describe the long-term course of depressive symptoms up to 3 years post-stroke and to develop a prediction model for depressive symptoms 1 and 3 years post-stroke.
DESIGN: Longitudinal follow-up study.
Patients: Data were analysed for 131 patients with a first-ever supratentorial stroke admitted for inpatient rehabilitation in the Netherlands
METHODS: The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale was used to assess post-stroke depressive symptoms at 6 months, 1 and 3 years post-stroke.
RESULTS: Post-stroke depressive symptoms were present 6 months, 1 year and 3 years post-stroke in 23.7%, 25.2% and 16.0% of the patients, respectively. At all 3 assessments post-stroke depressive symptoms were absent in 65.6% of the patients and present in 12.2% of the patients. Of the patients with post-stroke depressive symptoms 6 months post-stroke, 41.9% had recovered from post-stroke depressive symptoms 3 years post-stroke. The most important predictor of post-stroke depressive symptoms 1 and 3 years post-stroke was post-stroke depressive symptoms 6 months post-stroke (area under the curve 0.75 and 0.85). Male gender was an additional predictor for post-stroke depressive symptoms 3 years post-stroke.
CONCLUSION: Long-term post-stroke depressive symptoms are highly predictable at 6 months post-stroke. If a patient has not recovered from post-stroke depressive symptoms within the first 6 months post-stroke there is a high risk of chronic post-stroke depressive symptoms.
Vera Schepers, Marcel Post, Anne Visser-Meily, Ingrid van de Port, Mimouna Akhmouch, Eline Lindeman
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