Changes in levels of cartilage oligomeric proteinase and urinary C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen in subjects with knee osteoarthritis after dextrose prolotherapy: A randomized controlled trial
Yose Waluyo, Budu, Agussalim Bukhari, Endy Adnan, Ratna Darjanti Haryadi, Irfan Idris, Firdaus Hamid, Andry Usman, Muhammad Phetrus Johan, Andi Alfian Zainuddin
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia. E-mail: email@example.com
Objective: To assess the effects of dextrose prolotherapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis on the levels of serum cartilage oligomeric proteinase and urinary C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen, and on the Western Ontario McMaster Universities Index and numerical rating scale score for pain.
Methods: A randomized controlled trial, in which participants were randomly allocated into 2 groups, receiving injections of either hyaluronic acid or dextrose prolotherapy. The hyaluronic acid group received 5 injections, 1 each on weeks 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, and the dextrose prolotherapy group received 3 injections, 1 each on weeks 1, 5 and 9. Serum cartilage oligomeric proteinase, urinary C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen, Western Ontario McMaster Universities Index score, and numerical rating scale score for pain were measured at baseline and 3 weeks after the last injection. Comparative analysis was conducted using Wilcoxon test within groups and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test between groups.
Results: A total of 47 participants (21 allocated to hyaluronic acid, 26 allocated to dextrose prolotherapy) completed the protocol. Both interventions resulted in significant improvements in numerical rating scale scores for pain, total Western Ontario McMaster Universities Index scores, and its subscales score. However, the dextrose prolotherapy outperformed hyaluronic acid in numerical rating scale score for pain and level of urinary C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen, with score changes differences of 0.93 (p = 0.042) and 0.34 (p = 0.048), respectively. No significant changes in level of serum cartilage oligomeric proteinase were found in either group.
Conclusion: Dextrose prolotherapy is an alternative injection therapy for knee osteoarthritis, which was found to be associated with a significant reduction in urinary C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen compared with hyaluronic acid injection. Neither injection method resulted in reduced serum cartilage oligomeric proteinase.
Knee osteoarthritis is a common musculoskeletal disorder, which is one of the most frequent causes of disability in elderly people. To improve patients’ quality of life, prolotherapy has been developed as a non-operative treatment option for osteoarthritis. This study compared the effectiveness of dextrose prolotherapy with that of standard therapy using hyaluronic acid injections. Both interventions were effective in terms of Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score improvement and numerical rating scale score changes. Cartilage repair was assessed by measuring levels of specific biomarkers of cartilage breakdown: urinary C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen (uCTX-II) and serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (sCOMP). Dextrose prolotherapy was more effective than hyaluronic acid in reducing these biomarkers and decreasing patients’ pain. Dextrose prolotherapy is therefore recommended for use in patients with knee osteoarthritis, since it gives better results, is cost beneficial, and is suitable for use in low-resource settings. Dextrose prolotherapy may help to repair cartilage in knee OA, as it reduces the uCTX-II level.
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